Relationship between Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction Among Physicians Working in Greater Male’ Hospitals


  • Rihshaan Mohamed Ministry of Health
  • Sheema Saeed Villa College



Autocratic leadership style, Democratic leadership style, Laissez-faire leadership style, Transformational leadership style, Transactional leadership style, Job satisfaction, Physicians


Leadership has a significant impact on the job satisfaction of health practitioners and it plays a key role in improving health care workers’ work performance, work environment and outcomes for patients in their care. This quantitative study identifies physicians’ perceptions of their supervisors’ leadership styles and examines the relationship between supervisors’ leadership styles and job satisfaction of physicians. Two-Hundred-and-Twenty-Six doctors participated in the study. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis were conducted as part of the data analysis. The results showed that almost half of the physicians were dissatisfied with their jobs on the measures used in this study. The results also revealed that the democratic leadership style and the transformational leadership style had a significant positive impact on the job satisfaction of physicians, whereas the autocratic leadership style, laissez-faire leadership style, and the transactional leadership style had a significant negative impact on the job satisfaction of physicians. This study contributes to the existing literature on the impact of different leadership styles on the job satisfaction of physicians, enabling healthcare supervisors and managers to self-identify areas to work on to improve their leadership and to set targets to effectively lead their teams, which eventually improves achievement of organizational objectives.


Achua, C., & Lussier, R. (2013). Effective Leadership (5th Edition) South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason.

Alshahrani, F., & Baig, L. (2016). Effect of Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among Critical Care Nurses in Aseer, Saudi Arabia. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons - Pakistan, 26(5), 366-370.

Asegid, A., Belachew, T., & Yimam, E. (2014). Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia. Nursing Research and Practice, 2014, 1-26.

Asian Development Bank. (2020). Maldives Economic Update 2020. Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank.

Asiri, S., Rohrer, W., Al-Surimi, K., Da’ar, O., & Ahmed, A. (2016). The association of leadership styles and empowerment with nurses’ organizational commitment in an acute health care setting: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing, 15(38), 1-10.

Babyak, M. (2004). What You See May Not Be What You Get: A Brief, Nontechnical Introduction to Overfitting in Regression-Type Models. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 411-421.

Bass, B. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s handbook of leadership: Theory, research and managerial applications (3rd Ed.). New York: Free Press.

Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. London: Sage Publications, Inc.

Bass, B., & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational Leadership (2nd Edition). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Chilcutt, A. (2009). Exploring leadership and team communication within the organizational environment of a dental practice. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 140(10), 1252-1258.

Crabb, K. (2020). 7 Facts about Healthcare in the Maldives. https://

Dartey-Baah, K. & Harlley, A. (2010). Job Satisfaction and Motivation: Understanding its impact on employee commitment and organisational performance. Academic Leadership: Online Journal. 8(4), 39.

Davis, C. (2018). Administrator Leadership Styles and Their Impact on School Nursing. NASN School Nurse, 33(1), 36-39.

DeLay, L., & Clark, K. (2020). The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction: A Survey of MR Technologists’ Perceptions. Radiologic Technology, 92(1), 12-22.

Ganta, V. (2014). Motivation in the workforce to improve the employee performance. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences, 2(6), 221-230.

Hackman, J., & Craig, M. (2009). Leadership: A Communication Perspective. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Herzberg, F. (2003). One more time: how do you motivate employee? Harvard Business Review, 81, 56-96.

Inderyas, S., Khattak, K., Raza, A., Hassan, Z., & Mohammad, A. (2015, January). The moderating role of power distance on the relationship between leadership styles and employees job performance on public health care sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(1), 1-8.

Khanzada, B., Naeem, S., & Butt, H. (2018). Impact of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction and Patient Safety Outcomes in Health Sector of Pakistan. Journal of Health Education Research & Development, 6(2), 01-07.

Khoshhal, K., & Guraya, S. (2016). Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers: A systematic review of the desired competencies and standard settings for physicians’ leadership. Saudi Medical Journal, 37(10), 1061-1067.

Leigh, J., Kravitz, R., Schembri, M., & Samuels, S. (2002). Physician Career Satisfaction across Specialities. Archives of internal medicine, 162, 1577- 1584.

Lewin, K., Lippit, R., & White, R. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301.

Locke, E. (1976). The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction. In: Dunnette, M.D., Ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 1, 1297- 1343. Chicago: Rand McNelly.

Lofquist, L., & Dawis, R. (1991). Essentials of person-environment-correspondence counselling. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Maboko, D. (2011). Nursing leadership in an academic hospital in Gauteng. Journal of Nursing Management, 20(7), 912-920.

Maereg, R. (2019). Relationship between leadership styles and nurses’ turnover in public hospitals: The Case of public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Master’s Thesis, St. Mary’s University College. Belfast: St. Mary’s University College.

Malik, M., & Azmat, S. (2019). Leader and Leadership: Historical Developments of the Terms and Critical Review of the Literature. Annals of the University of Craiova for Journalism, Communication and Management, 5, 16-32.

Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Ministry of Health. (2021). Maldives Health Statistics 2020. Ministry of Health, Maldives. Malé: Health Statistics and Publication Section.

Mosadeghrad, A., & Ferdosi, M. (2013). Leadership, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Healthcare Sector: Proposing and Testing a Model. Mater Sociomed, 25(2), 121-126.

Morsiani G, Bagnasco A, & Sasso L. (2017). How staff nurses perceive the impact of nurse managers’ leadership style in terms of job satisfaction: a mixed method study. Journal of Nursing Management, 25(2):119–28.

Mousazadeh, S., Yektatalab, S., Momennasab, M., & Parvizy, S. (2019). Job Satisfaction Challenges of Nurses in the Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study. Risk Management & Healthcare Policy, 2019(12), 233-242.

Musinguzi, C., Namale, L., Rutebemberwa, E., Dahal, A., Ntege, P., & Kekitiinwa, A. (2018). The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 23(10), 21-32.

National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Statistical Yearbook of Maldives, 2019.

Negussie, N., & Demissie, A. (2013). Relationship between Leadership Styles of Nurse Managers and Nurses’ Job Satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science, 23(1), 49-58.

Nidadhavolu, A. (2018). Impact of Leadership Styles on Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment – A Study in the Construction Sector in India. Master’s Thesis, Western Kentucky University. Kentucky.

Senek, M., Robertson, S., Ryan, T., King, R. Wood, E., Taylor, B. & Tod, A. (2020). Determinants of nurse job dissatisfaction - findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis in the UK. BMC Nursing, 19, 88.

Sfantou, D., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A., Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017). Importance of Leadership Style towards Quality of Care Measures in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review. Healthcare, 5(73), 1-17.

Shim, J. (2006). Dictionary of Business Terms. California: Cengage Learning.

Specchia, M., Cozzolino, M., Carini, E., Pilla, A., Galletti, C., Ricciardi, W., & Damiani, G. (2021). Leadership Styles and Nurses’ Job Satisfaction. Results of a Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1-15.

Swaminathan, S., Qureshi, H., Jahan, M., Baskota, D., De Alwis, S., & Dandona, L. (2017). Health Research Priorities and Gaps in South Asia. British Medical Journal, 357.

Top, M., Akdere, M., & Tarcan, M. (2015). Examining transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust in Turkish hospitals: Public servants versus private sector employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(9), 1259- 1282.

World Health Organization. (2018). Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance. World Health Organization. Malé, Maldives: World Health Organization.

Zygmont, C., & Smith, M. (2014). Robust factor analysis in the presence of normality violations, missing data, and outliers: Empirical questions and possible solutions. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 10(1), 40- 55.



How to Cite

Relationship between Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction Among Physicians Working in Greater Male’ Hospitals. (2022). International Journal of Social Research & Innovation, 6(1), 1-30.