Job Motivation and Job Performance: A Case Study of the Maldives’ Energy Sector Employees


  • Shamma Solih Former Student (Villa College)
  • Azra Abdul Sattar Villa College



motivation in the workplace, employee performance, relationship, energy sector, employees


Organizations maintain employee motivation in order to increase output and performance. When there is a lack of employee motivation within a company, employees’ potential and skills are underutilized and the employees are unable to accomplish organizational goals. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of motivation among staff of an urban electricity company in the Maldives, and to explore the relationship between the job performance and their motivation. A survey questionnaire was used for data collection. The results showed that there is a significant and favorable relationship between employee motivation and performance. However, with a correlation rs (125) =.38, p<.001, these two variables do not appear to be strongly correlated. Further analysis indicates that women had lower motivation than men. This is concerning since women are severely under-represented in the energy sector. Factors which may negatively influence the culture of reciprocity to work beyond work contracts for the benefit of the company, also need to be investigated further.

Author Biographies

  • Shamma Solih, Former Student (Villa College)

    Shamma Adam Solih successfully graduated from the Bachelor of Psychology program at Villa College in December 2023. She is currently pursuing her Master's degree in Health and Clinical Psychology at Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Shamma Adam Solih email:

  • Azra Abdul Sattar, Villa College

    Azra Abdul Sattar works as a lecturer at Faculty of Educational Studies (FES), at Villa College. Email:


Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422–436.

Agrawal, A., & Knoeber, C. R. (2001). Do some outside directors play a political role? The Journal of Law and Economics, 44(1), 179-198

Blau, P. M. (1968). Social exchange. International encyclopedia of the social sciences, 7(4), 452-457.

Clancy, J., & Feenstra, M. (2019). Women, Gender Equality and the Energy Transition in the EU. Publications Office of the European Union.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (2015). Self-Determination Theory. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 91, 486-491.

Dudek, M., Bashynska, I., Filyppova, S., Yermak, S., Cichoń, D. (2023). Methodology for assessment of inclusive social responsibility of the energy industry enterprises. Journal of Cleaner Production, 394.

Ford, M. E., & Smith, P. R. (2020). Motivating self and others: Thriving with social purpose, life meaning, and the pursuit of core personal goals. Cambridge University Press.

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2014). The history of self-determination theory in psychology and management. In Gagné, M. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 1–9). Oxford University Press.

Ganta, V. C. (2014). Motivation in the workplace to improve employee performance. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences, 2(6), 221–230.

Gigauri, I., Vasilev, V. (2022). Corporate Social Responsibility in the Energy Sector: Towards Sustainability. In Khan, S.A.R., Panait, M., Puime Guillen, F., & Raimi, L. (Eds.), Energy Transition. Industrial Ecology. Springer, Singapore.

Grošelj, M., Černe, M., Penger, S., & Grah, B. (2021). Authentic and transformational leadership and innovative work behaviour: the moderating role of psychological empowerment. European Journal of Innovation Management, 24(3), 677-706.

Herzberg, F. (2003). One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 81, 56-96.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Hirst, M. K. (2021). Intrinsic motivation as influenced by task interdependence and goal setting. American Psychological Association, 73(1), 96–101.

Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: Main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789–1805. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816. 1993. tb01066.x

Kanter, R. M. (2008). Men and women of the corporation. Basic books.

Kunz, J. (2020). Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Motivation— Broadening the Perspective. Schmalenbach Business Review 72, 159-191.

Lawler, E. E. (1966). Ability as a moderator of the relationship between job attitudes and job performance. Personnel Psychology, 19(2), 153–164.

Mansoor, F. & Zubair, H. (2016). Factors influencing Employee Engagement: A study on a Telecommunication Network provider in Maldives. International Journal of Accounting and Business Management, 4(1), 50-63.

Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. Maslow Publications.

Maslow, A.H. & Lowery, R. (1998). Toward a psychology of being. 3rd edition, New York, Wiley & Sons.

McDermott, A. M., Conway, E., Rousseau, D. M., & Flood, P. C. (2013). Promoting effective psychological contracts through leadership: The missing link between HR strategy and performance. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 289-310

Miller, S. C. (2022, February 2). How Total Rewards Can Drive Performance Management Success. SHRM. Retrieved September 24, 2022, from

Ministry of Finance (17 January 2022). Annual Financial Review of State-Owned Enterprises (2020).

Monje-Amor, A., Xanthopoulou, D., Calvo, N., & Vázquez, J. P. (2021). Structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and work engagement: A cross-country study. European Management Journal, 39(6), 779-789.

Myilswamy, N. P., & Gayatri, R. (2014). A study on employee engagement: Role of employee engagement in organizational effectiveness. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 1(6), 331–333

Nduka, O. (2016). Employee motivation and performance. Centria University of Applied Science.

Organ, D. W. (1990). The Motivational basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 12 (1). 43-72.

Pandita, D., & Ray, S. (2018). Talent management and employee engagement–a meta-analysis of their impact on talent retention. Industrial and Commercial Training, 50(4), 185-199.

Pelletier, L. G., Dion, S., Tuson, K. M., & Green-Demers, I. (1999). Why do people fail to adopt environmental behaviors? Towards a taxonomy of environmental amotivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 2481–2504.

Peng, C.Y. (2018). A Literature Review of Job Crafting and Its Related Research. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 6(1), pp.1-7.

Perry-Smith, J. E., & Shalley, C. E. (2003). The social side of creativity: A static and dynamic social network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 28(1), 89–106.

Pinto, E. (2011). The Influence of Wage on Motivation and Satisfaction. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER). 10. 81.10.19030/iber.v10i9.5629.

Riyanto, S., Endri, E., & Herlisha, N. (2021). Effect of work motivation and job satisfaction on employee performance: Mediating role of employee engagement. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 19(3), 162–174.

Rofcanin, Y., Las Heras, M., Jose Bosch, M., Stollberger, J., & Mayer, M. (2021). How do weekly obtained task i-deals improve work performance? The role of relational context and structural job resources. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 30(4), 555-565

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68.

Sabir, R. I., Akhtar, N., Bukhari, F. A. S., Nasir, J., & Ahmed, W. (2014). Impact of training on productivity of employees: A Case study of electricity supply company in Pakistan. International Review of Management and Business Research, 3(2), 595-606.

Schlindwein, L. F. & Montalvo, C. (2023). Energy citizenship: Accounting for the heterogeneity of human behaviours within energy transition, Energy Policy, 180.

Sekhar, C., Patwardhan, M., & Singh, R. K. (2013). A literature review on motivation. Global Business Perspectives, 1(4), 471–487.

Sennett, P. (2021, October 5). Understanding intrinsic and extrinsic motivation/emerging leaders | university of Rochester. Emerging Leaders.,punishment%20or%20receiving%20a%20-reward.

Shahumeel, A. (2020). Stakeholder’s Mental Model on the Causality and Priority of the Civil Service Reform Agenda in the Maldives. Master of Public Management Thesis, KDI School of Public Policy and Management.

Shibly, M. A. M., & Weerasinghe, T. D. (2019). The impact of financial rewards on work motivation of operational level employees: Evidence from a leading manufacturing organization in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies, 9(1), 1–17.

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.

Thibault Landry, A., Gagné, M., Forest, J., Guerrero, S., Séguin, M., & Papachristopoulos, K. (2017). The relation between financial incentives, motivation, and performance. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 16(2), 61–76.

Ummu Kulsoom, A. (2020). Employees’ Engagement and Job Commitment in the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Maldives. Doctor of Business Administration thesis, University of Liverpool.

Vroom, V.H. & Deci, E.L. (1983). Management and Motivation. Penguin



How to Cite

Job Motivation and Job Performance: A Case Study of the Maldives’ Energy Sector Employees. (2023). International Journal of Social Research & Innovation, 7(2), 95-113.